Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory, and is a city of 109,419 people (2001 census) on Australia's far north-western coastline.
It is also the only Australian city to have come under substantial attack during any war:
Japanese planes bombed Darwin during the Pacific War.
Darwin has the largest proportional population of Indigenous Australians of any Australian capital city, and a significant percentage of the people in Darwin are recent immigrants from South and East Asia.
A s such Darwin is often called the "multicultural capital of Australia".
Due to its proximity to Asia, Darwin is an important port, particularly for the live export of sheep and cattle, and of minerals. It is also the site of a large Australian Army base and a naval facility supporting patrol boat activity off Australia's northern coastline.
Darwin's harbour was first sighted in 1839 by John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle.
The ship's captain, John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, the British Naturalist, who had sailed with him on an earlier expedition of the Beagle.
Location of Darwin in relation to other major citiesDarwin is closer to the capitals of three other countries than to the capital of Australia: Darwin to Canberra is 3144 km. Dili (East Timor) is 656 km from Darwin, Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea) is 1818 km, and Jakarta (Indonesia) is 2735 km from Darwin.
Even Singapore is only slightly further away at 3360 km, and Manila (Philippines) at 3206 km.
Darwin has a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons.
The dry season runs from May to September. In the coolest months of June and July, daily temperature range is 19 to 30°C.
The Wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains.
The majority of rainfall occurs between December and March when thunderstorms are common and humidity is regularly over 70 per cent
It has a tropical climate, and is subjected to tropical thunderstorms and cyclones;
The first recorded cyclone to hit Darwin was the 1867 cyclone, and much of the city was destroyed by Cyclone Tracy in 1974.
Mean January maximum temperature — 32°C
Mean January minimum temperature — 24°C
Mean July maximum temperature — 30°C
Mean July minimum temperature — 19°C
Mean annual rainfall — 1669mm
Wettest month on average — January, 422 mm
Rain Days: 110