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Voting Systems


 


Voting Systems

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional Preferential Voting | Proportional | Voting

First-Past-The-Post

The First-Past-The-Post system of voting lacks the electoral sensitivity of other voting methods and can allow a candidate to represent a whole electorate with far less that fifty percent of the popular vote.

  • Voters select one candidate or proposition from those listed on the ballot paper and mark it with a tick, cross, 1 or yes in accordance with any specific rule.
  • When all votes have been cast they are counted.
  • That candidate or proposition having the most votes wins the election.
  • If there were ten candidates it is not impossible that a candidate could win with just ten percent plus one of the vote.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional Preferential Voting | Proportional Representation | Voting Above the Line


Preferential Voting

This system of voting is far more sensitive to public opinion than the First-Past-The-Post system as the minimum portion of the vote required for election is fifty percent plus one and each voter has the ability to rank candidates according to his/her personal choice thus, not wasting a vote.

Voters mark the boxes beside the candidates' names on the ballot paper 1, 2, 3 etc. until each of the boxes contains a number.

You will have worked out prior to polling day (one would hope) which candidate most suits you, then, if that candidate does not poll well, your next favourite candidate and so on.

In the Exhaustive Preferential system one must mark all of the boxes though your system may only require you to mark a minimum number of boxes

When all votes are cast they are counted by authorised officers.

The first step is to count all of the first preference votes, those boxes marked with a 1.

On completion of this process that candidate with the fewest first preference votes is eliminated and his/her votes are redistributed.

The second preferences on the ballot papers of the eliminated candidate are distributed.

On completion of this process the candidate with the least number of votes is eliminated.

This process is continued until one of the candidates has a minimum of fifty percent plus one of the total vote and wins.

 

 

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional | Proportional Representation | Voting

Optional Preferential Voting

Similar to the preferential Voting system except you can exercise the option to select one or a number of candidates in order of your choice.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional | Proportional Representation | Voting

Proportional Representation

Generally regarded as the system most in tune with the will of the people this system involves a Multi-member electorate such as the Australian Senate or the Tasmanian Lower House and it is the most likely to reflect the will of the electorate in the Parliament.The Proportional Representation system is so sensitive that even the event of a small donkey-vote (Where a voter starts marking the ballot paper from the top left hand corner and finishing in the bottom right hand corner rather than making a reasoned choice) dramatically alters the result of the poll. To overcome this problem the Tasmanians rotate the columns and the names within the columns in successive ballot papers so that the Donkey-vote cancels itself out.

Voters mark the boxes beside the candidates names on the ballot paper 1, 2, 3 etc. until each of the boxes contains a number.At the completion of voting the number of first preference votes recorded for each candidate are counted.The aggregate number of first preferences recorded shall be divided by one more than the number of candidates required to be elected and the quotient increased by one, disregarding the remainder, shall be the quota and, with one exception, no candidate shall be elected until s/he obtains a number of votes equal to or greater than the quota.A candidate who has, after the first preferences have been counted, a number of first preferences equal to or greater than the quota shall be declared elected.Where the number of first preferences obtained by a candidate is equal to the quota, the whole of the ballot papers for that candidate shall be set aside as finally dealt with.
Where the number of first preferences obtained by a candidate is in excess of the quota, the proportion of those preferences in excess of the quota shall be transferred to the other candidates not yet elected, next in order of the elector's respective preferences in the following manner;
1. In determining which candidate is next in order of an elector's preference, any candidate who has been declared elected or has been excluded shall not be considered and the order of the voter's preferences shall be determined as though those candidates had not been on the ballot paper.
2. All the ballot papers on which a first preference is recorded for the elected candidate shall be re-examined, and the number of second preferences (or third or next consecutive preferences recorded for each unelected candidate shall be counted,
3. The surplus of the elected candidate shall be divided by the total number of first preference votes obtained by that candidate on the counting of the first preferences and the resulting fraction shall be the transfer value.

Therefore, if a quota was 10 000 and a candidate received 20 000 first preference votes the transfer value would be one half or .5.

4. The number of second or other preferences to be transferred to each unelected candidate shall be multiplied by that value.
5. The resulting number, disregarding any fractional remainder, shall be transferred to each unelected candidate and added to the number of first preference votes for that candidate

 Therefore if candidate A's transfer value were .5 and there were 600 second preferences recorded to candidate B then candidate B would add 300 votes to his/her first preference votes.

When, after the completion of this process no candidate or less than the required amount of candidates has a quota, that candidate with the least number of votes recorded against him/her is eliminated and all of his/her votes are transferred to the candidate next in order of preferences except where that candidate is elected or excluded.
Each first preference vote of that candidate is transferred with a value of one and all other votes obtained will be transferred at the value they were received.
Each time a candidate achieves or exceeds a quota through this process that candidate is declared elected and excess votes are distributed as above.
Where a surplus exists it shall be dealt with prior to the elimination of any other candidate.
Where on a transfer it is found that on a ballot paper there is no candidate opposite whose name a number has been placed, other than a candidate who has already been elected or excluded, that ballot paper shall be set aside as exhausted

The above process continues until the required number of candidates have been elected.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional | Proportional Representation | Voting

Voting Above the Line

In keeping with the modern 'fast everything' we now have the fast vote. We are encouraged to not concern ourselves with who the candidates are in many of our Upper Houses but to simply place a one against a political party above the line and let the parties worry about it.As a result of this trend it is often quite difficult to get information on candidates and one is brushed off with 'don't worry about it, just put a one beside our party. It's much easier'.Despite the fact that Upper House ballot papers can often resemble table cloths I challenge you to try to come up with the names, parties and policies of a reasonable number of candidates.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional Preferential Voting | Proportional Representation | Voting Above the Line

 

 


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Welcome to


Grandpa Pencil
looks at
Voting Systems


First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional Preferential Voting | Proportional | Voting

First-Past-The-Post

The First-Past-The-Post system of voting lacks the electoral sensitivity of other voting methods and can allow a candidate to represent a whole electorate with far less that fifty percent of the popular vote.

  • Voters select one candidate or proposition from those listed on the ballot paper and mark it with a tick, cross, 1 or yes in accordance with any specific rule.
  • When all votes have been cast they are counted.
  • That candidate or proposition having the most votes wins the election.
  • If there were ten candidates it is not impossible that a candidate could win with just ten percent plus one of the vote.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional Preferential Voting | Proportional Representation | Voting Above the Line


Preferential Voting

This system of voting is far more sensitive to public opinion than the First-Past-The-Post system as the minimum portion of the vote required for election is fifty percent plus one and each voter has the ability to rank candidates according to his/her personal choice thus, not wasting a vote.

Voters mark the boxes beside the candidates' names on the ballot paper 1, 2, 3 etc. until each of the boxes contains a number.

You will have worked out prior to polling day (one would hope) which candidate most suits you, then, if that candidate does not poll well, your next favourite candidate and so on.

In the Exhaustive Preferential system one must mark all of the boxes though your system may only require you to mark a minimum number of boxes

When all votes are cast they are counted by authorised officers.

The first step is to count all of the first preference votes, those boxes marked with a 1.

On completion of this process that candidate with the fewest first preference votes is eliminated and his/her votes are redistributed.

The second preferences on the ballot papers of the eliminated candidate are distributed.

On completion of this process the candidate with the least number of votes is eliminated.

This process is continued until one of the candidates has a minimum of fifty percent plus one of the total vote and wins.

 

 

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional | Proportional Representation | Voting

Optional Preferential Voting

Similar to the preferential Voting system except you can exercise the option to select one or a number of candidates in order of your choice.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional | Proportional Representation | Voting

Proportional Representation

Generally regarded as the system most in tune with the will of the people this system involves a Multi-member electorate such as the Australian Senate or the Tasmanian Lower House and it is the most likely to reflect the will of the electorate in the Parliament.The Proportional Representation system is so sensitive that even the event of a small donkey-vote (Where a voter starts marking the ballot paper from the top left hand corner and finishing in the bottom right hand corner rather than making a reasoned choice) dramatically alters the result of the poll. To overcome this problem the Tasmanians rotate the columns and the names within the columns in successive ballot papers so that the Donkey-vote cancels itself out.

Voters mark the boxes beside the candidates names on the ballot paper 1, 2, 3 etc. until each of the boxes contains a number.At the completion of voting the number of first preference votes recorded for each candidate are counted.The aggregate number of first preferences recorded shall be divided by one more than the number of candidates required to be elected and the quotient increased by one, disregarding the remainder, shall be the quota and, with one exception, no candidate shall be elected until s/he obtains a number of votes equal to or greater than the quota.A candidate who has, after the first preferences have been counted, a number of first preferences equal to or greater than the quota shall be declared elected.Where the number of first preferences obtained by a candidate is equal to the quota, the whole of the ballot papers for that candidate shall be set aside as finally dealt with.
Where the number of first preferences obtained by a candidate is in excess of the quota, the proportion of those preferences in excess of the quota shall be transferred to the other candidates not yet elected, next in order of the elector's respective preferences in the following manner;
1. In determining which candidate is next in order of an elector's preference, any candidate who has been declared elected or has been excluded shall not be considered and the order of the voter's preferences shall be determined as though those candidates had not been on the ballot paper.
2. All the ballot papers on which a first preference is recorded for the elected candidate shall be re-examined, and the number of second preferences (or third or next consecutive preferences recorded for each unelected candidate shall be counted,
3. The surplus of the elected candidate shall be divided by the total number of first preference votes obtained by that candidate on the counting of the first preferences and the resulting fraction shall be the transfer value.

Therefore, if a quota was 10 000 and a candidate received 20 000 first preference votes the transfer value would be one half or .5.

4. The number of second or other preferences to be transferred to each unelected candidate shall be multiplied by that value.
5. The resulting number, disregarding any fractional remainder, shall be transferred to each unelected candidate and added to the number of first preference votes for that candidate

 Therefore if candidate A's transfer value were .5 and there were 600 second preferences recorded to candidate B then candidate B would add 300 votes to his/her first preference votes.

When, after the completion of this process no candidate or less than the required amount of candidates has a quota, that candidate with the least number of votes recorded against him/her is eliminated and all of his/her votes are transferred to the candidate next in order of preferences except where that candidate is elected or excluded.
Each first preference vote of that candidate is transferred with a value of one and all other votes obtained will be transferred at the value they were received.
Each time a candidate achieves or exceeds a quota through this process that candidate is declared elected and excess votes are distributed as above.
Where a surplus exists it shall be dealt with prior to the elimination of any other candidate.
Where on a transfer it is found that on a ballot paper there is no candidate opposite whose name a number has been placed, other than a candidate who has already been elected or excluded, that ballot paper shall be set aside as exhausted

The above process continues until the required number of candidates have been elected.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional | Proportional Representation | Voting

Voting Above the Line

In keeping with the modern 'fast everything' we now have the fast vote. We are encouraged to not concern ourselves with who the candidates are in many of our Upper Houses but to simply place a one against a political party above the line and let the parties worry about it.As a result of this trend it is often quite difficult to get information on candidates and one is brushed off with 'don't worry about it, just put a one beside our party. It's much easier'.Despite the fact that Upper House ballot papers can often resemble table cloths I challenge you to try to come up with the names, parties and policies of a reasonable number of candidates.

First-Past-The-Post | Preferential Voting | Optional Preferential Voting | Proportional Representation | Voting Above the Line

 


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