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Grandpa Pencil
Learns the rules for
the correct spelling of

The Participles Of Verbs
and some other spelling


The Source

Information on this page is drawn from
The Dictionary Appendix and Orthographer

by C. Vines, published by J. H. Jackson, London, 1854.

The Vowels

For the purpose of this work the vowels are considered to be
a, e, i, o, u and y.
W is considered to be a vowel when it follows another vowel.



The Rules

Ist Rule

Omit the 'e' from all words ending with a single 'e' when 'ing' is added such as write to writing.
The following 8 words are the only exceptions:
Dye to dyeing, eye to eyeing, hoe to hoeing, shoe to shoeing, singe to singeing, swinge to swingeing, springe to springeing and tinge to tingeing.

2nd Rule

Never double the last consonant of words ending in two consonants when adding 'ing' or 'ed' such as abstract to abstracting.
This rule is without a single exception.

3rd Rule

Never double the last consonant of words ending with one consonant preceded by two vowels such as clear to cleared.
This rule has no exception.

4th Rule

Always double the last consonant of words of one syllable ending with one consonant preceded by one vowel when adding 'ed' or 'ing' as in drop to dropped or beg to begged and begging
This rule has no exception.

5th Rule

Always double the last consonant of words of more than one syllable ending with a consonant preceded by one vowel and accented on the last syllable when adding 'ed' or 'ing' as with submit to submitted and submitting.
This rule has no exceptions.

6th Rule

Do not double the last consonant of words of the same kind as in rule 5 that are not accented on the last syllable when adding 'ed' or 'ing' such as in limit to limited and limiting.
The author claims that the exceptions to this rule have been condemned by Lowth, Walker, Webster and Perry as erroneous so go with your spell checker.

7th Rule

Retain the 'y' in all words ending in 'y' and preceded by a consonant when adding 'ing' as in spy to spying. When 'ed' is added change the 'y' to 'i' as in spy to spied and when 's' is added the 'y' is changed to 'ie' as in spy to spies.
This rule has no exceptions.

8th Rule

Do not change the 'y' to 'i' in words ending in 'y' preceded by another vowel when adding 'ing' 'ed' or 's' as in delay to delaying with the exception of the following four words.
Lay to laid, pay to paid, say to said and affray to afraid

9th Rule

Change the 'ie' in all words ending in 'ie' to 'y' on adding 'ing' as in die to dying.
There are no exceptions to this rule.

10th Rule

Always retain the same letters of words ending in a double letter or an 'a', 'o' or 'w' when adding 'ed' or 'ing' as in call to called and calling. echo to echoed and echoing and allow to allowing and allowed without exception.

11th Rule

The plural of nouns is formed by adding 's' to the singular as in hand to hands and horse to horses

12th Rule

Nouns that end with 's', 'ss', 'ch soft', 'sh', 'x', 'i', 'o' and 'oo' form their plurals by taking 'es' excepting those ending with 'io' as in church to churches and potato to potatoes.
The only justifiable exceptions to the rule are embryos, nuncios, borachios, pistachios, seraglios, olios, and folios.

13th Rule

All names or nouns ending with 'y' when preceded by a consonant form their plurals by changing 'y' to 'ies' such as cherry to cherries and fly to flies.
If 'a', 'e' or 'o' precedes the 'y' then the plural is formed by adding the 's' only.

14th Rule

Adjectives ending with 'y' preceded by a consonant form their degrees of comparison by changing 'y' into 'i' as with early to earlier and happy to happier though if 'o' or 'a' precedes the 'y' the 'y' is not changed as in gay to gayer.
Nouns and adjectives ending with 'y' upon taking 'ish', 'ism' or 'ite' do not change the 'y' as in dry to dryish.
"y' is always omitted when adding 'ist' except in copy to copyist.

15th Rule

Double the consonant in all adjectives ending with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel in on adding 'er', 'est, or 'ish' as in hot to hotter.



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