Learns the rules for
the correct spelling of
The Participles Of Verbs
and some other spelling
Information on this page is drawn from
For the purpose of this work the vowels are considered to be
Omit the 'e' from all words ending with a single 'e' when 'ing' is added such as write to writing.
Never double the last consonant of words ending in two consonants when adding 'ing' or 'ed' such as abstract to abstracting.
Never double the last consonant of words ending with one consonant preceded by two vowels such as clear to cleared.
Always double the last consonant of words of one syllable ending with one consonant preceded by one vowel when adding 'ed' or 'ing' as in drop to dropped or beg to begged and begging
Always double the last consonant of words of more than one syllable ending with a consonant preceded by one vowel and accented on the last syllable when adding 'ed' or 'ing' as with submit to submitted and submitting.
Do not double the last consonant of words of the same kind as in rule 5 that are not accented on the last syllable when adding 'ed' or 'ing' such as in limit to limited and limiting.
Retain the 'y' in all words ending in 'y' and preceded by a consonant when adding 'ing' as in spy to spying. When 'ed' is added change the 'y' to 'i' as in spy to spied and when 's' is added the 'y' is changed to 'ie' as in spy to spies.
Do not change the 'y' to 'i' in words ending in 'y' preceded by another vowel when adding 'ing' 'ed' or 's' as in delay to delaying with the exception of the following four words.
Change the 'ie' in all words ending in 'ie' to 'y' on adding 'ing' as in die to dying.
Always retain the same letters of words ending in a double letter or an 'a', 'o' or 'w' when adding 'ed' or 'ing' as in call to called and calling. echo to echoed and echoing and allow to allowing and allowed without exception.
The plural of nouns is formed by adding 's' to the singular as in hand to hands and horse to horses
Nouns that end with 's', 'ss', 'ch soft', 'sh', 'x', 'i', 'o' and 'oo' form their plurals by taking 'es' excepting those ending with 'io' as in church to churches and potato to potatoes.
All names or nouns ending with 'y' when preceded by a consonant form their plurals by changing 'y' to 'ies' such as cherry to cherries and fly to flies.
Adjectives ending with 'y' preceded by a consonant form their degrees of comparison by changing 'y' into 'i' as with early to earlier and happy to happier though if 'o' or 'a' precedes the 'y' the 'y' is not changed as in gay to gayer.
Double the consonant in all adjectives ending with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel in on adding 'er', 'est, or 'ish' as in hot to hotter.